Challenger O ring

Image: The Final Crew of the Space Shuttle Challenger via Wikipedia. The cause of the disaster was traced to an O-ring, a circular gasket that sealed the right rocket booster. This had failed due to the low temperature (31°F / -0.5°C) at launch time - a risk that several engineers noted, but that NASA management dismissed http://www.FeynmanPhysicsLectures.comVarious Feynman Videos: Challenger Crash O-Ring 1 The fundamental message which came out of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident was that the main cause for the destruction of STS-51-L was cold temperatures resulting in cold O-Rings. This claim has been repeated long enough and often enough that people believe it 1. Primary o-ring erosion and/or blowby 2. Primary o-ring erosion only The two databases are identical except for the 2nd attribute of the 21st instance (confirmed by David Draper on 8/5/93). Edited from (Draper, 1993): The motivation for collecting this database was the explosion of the USA Space Shuttle Challenger on 28 January, 1986

The Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion and the O-rin

  1. The O-ring on the Challenger happened to be 12 feet in overall diameter. At launch, there is high pressure inside the solid rocket boosters as the igniters light the fuel. That pressure caused the pieces holding the O-ring to flex slightly. This relative movement between the two pieces (tang and clevis) reduced the compression on the O-rings
  2. Challenger on the launchpad Arrow indicating leaking O-ring on SRB After the space shuttle Challenger and its crew were destroyed in a fiery, catastrophic explosion on January 28, 1986, NASA appointed members of the Rogers Commission to investigate the cause of the disaster
  3. ed to have been from non-uniform pressure at the time of ignition. [1] : 130 [3] : 39-42 The January 1985 launch of STS-51-C was the coldest Space Shuttle launch at the time, with a 62 °F (17 °C) air temperature.
  4. An O-ring, also known as a packing or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a round cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.. The O-ring may be used in static applications or in dynamic applications where there is relative motion between.
  5. I am unsure as to how the elasticity and plasticity of the Viton selected in this application changed as it approached its lower operating temperature. From personal experience, many plastics tend to become quite stiff long before they reach their..
  6. Challenger O-Ring Data - Logistic Regression. Background. The Space Shuttle Challenger exploded 73 second after liftoff on January 28th, 1986. The disaster claimed the lives of all seven astronauts on board, including school teacher Christa McAuliffe. 1 The details surrounding this disaster were very involved

Richard Feynman: Challenger Crash O-Ring - YouTub

HydraPak was the sole contractor NASA used in the manufacture of the space shuttle O-rings. On the morning of January 28, 1986, NASA decided to go ahead with the launch of the Challenger despite. *The cause of the Challenger accident was determined to be the failure of O-rings in the right-hand booster joint to contain the pressure of hot gases produced by burning rocket fuel Morton-Thiokol discovered that both O-rings (booster sealers) had malfunctioned, which led to the fuel tank blowing up. The Challenger itself didn't technically explode but rather disintegrated from the result of the O-ring malfunction. The crew members' cabin remained in tact but fell to the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 200 miles per hour. A great public display of the power of one curious mind 5. The o-rings were not rubber, they were silicone, which has much higher temperature resistance than rubber. There was not a single o-ring, there were two, so if one burned through the second one was supposed to hold. They were sealed upon assembly in the field with mineral paste and the joint between the two booster sections was secured with.

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosio

HydraPak, founded by Jeffs himself, manufactured the faulty O-rings that were blamed for killing all seven crew members on the Challenger Space Shuttle in 1986 Worries of potential O-ring failure in the near-freezing weather conditions predicted for the following morning, as expressed by Roger Boisjoly and others, were downplayed, and Thiokol collectively voted that Challenger was fit to fly, unwittingly signing the death warrants of the seven-member 51L crew: Commander Dick Scobee, Pilot Mike Smith.

Challenger USA Space Shuttle O-Ring Data Se

The Challenger was lost because one small part - an O-ring seal - failed during a launch in cold weather. The possibility of this part failing had been predicted long before, but Nasa managers. This is what happened with the sub-freezing O-rings in Challenger's right Solid Rocket Boosters aft field joint. The shuttle is designed to handle a certain amount of structural load with margin. In Challenger's case, the O-ring got so cold it hadn't expanded properly and allowed the leak. This raised a more pressing question. The O-ring was known to be sensitive to cold and could only.

The O-rings were never tested in extreme cold. On the morning of the launch, the cold rubber became stiff, failing to fully seal the joint. Space Travel: Danger at Every Phase (Infographic After the Challenger accident, the 1986 presidential commission learned the O-rings in the field joints of the shuttle's solid-­fuel rocket boosters had a history of damage correlated with low. Captain O-Ring - Replacement 151122 O-Rings Compatible with Pentek Big Blue Water Filters OEM Size ORing Buna-N (3 Pack) 4.7 out of 5 stars 1,175 1 offer from $11.9

Challenger O-Ring Failure: Breaking One Cause into Cause

  1. Bob Ebeling was one of five booster rocket engineers at a NASA contractor who tried to stop the 1986 launch of the space shuttle Challenger, which exploded 73 seconds into its flight. He was 89
  2. The Challenger O Ring Disaster Johnny Hopkins January 19, 2021 Podcasts Leave a Comment During their recent episode of the VALUE: After Hours Podcast, Taylor, Brewster, and Carlisle discussed The Challenger O Ring Disaster
  3. Challenger O Ring Logistic Regression. Shuttle Challenger Exploded Thirty Years Ago Today Jim On Light. The E Shuttle Challenger Disaster What Hened Infographic. The E Shuttle Challenger Disaster. Uh Oh A Frigid Temperature And Wind Shear Doomed The Flawed Challenger Weather Concierge
  4. Their investigation revealed that the O-ring seal on Challenger's solid rocket booster, which had become brittle in the cold temperatures, failed. Flames then broke out of the booster and.
  5. The evidence of previous issues with O-ring erosion and blow-by can be captured directly on the Cause Map diagram. The more time it takes for extrusion to occur, however, the greater the damage to the O-rings. This brings us to the most immediate reason for the O-ring failure: the low temperatures at launch caused the O-rings to harden
  6. This front housing o-ring is designed to use with Pentair Challenger high flow and high pressure inground pumps and also compatible with Pentair WaterFall specialty pumps. Measures 10-1/2-inch length by 1/4-inch height by 10-1/2-inch width
  7. es a model of the O-Rings, used to bring the Space Shuttle into orbit, at a meeting of senior executives and academic representatives in Rye, New York in Sept. 1991
STS-51-L Recovered Debris (O-Ring Tracks on Right SRB Join

Product Description. INYO # 5002-13A PENTAIR #355030 This Is The Square Diffuser Gasket Used On The Medium Head Challenger Pump. This Is Shaped Like An O-ring But Has A Square Cross Section. Material Is Black Rubber. Dimensions: Outside Diameter: 3-1/8 Inside Diameter: 2-3/4 Thickness: 3/ And, with the third O-ring, they hope to assure that at least one ring will always seal, eliminating the possibility of the kind of fatal leak that occurred on Challenger last Jan. 28 All O-ring erosion problems, including the problem containing the July 1985 launch constraint, were among the referenced matters that Thiokol suggested should be closed. McDonald noted that the O-ring problem would not be fully resolved for some time, and he enclosed a copy of Thiokol's August 30 plan for improving the motor seals. 13 Analyzing the failures of the O-rings requires an understanding of the underlying structure of Challenger. The shuttle's rocket boosters were made up of four segments filled with fuel and oxidizer and were assembled and sealed with O-ring seals, a critical component that prevented hot gas leakage during launch O-rings are even used in highly technical construction such as space ships and other aircraft. A faulty O-ring was deemed the cause of the Space Shuttle Challenger catastrophe in 1986. An O-ring used in the manufacture of the solid rocket booster did not seal as expected due to the cold weather conditions upon launch

The Challenger Disaster - Richard Feynma

  1. 1981: O-ring erosion detected after the second shuttle flight. 1985: The worst problem relating to the O-rings was exhibited after the January 24, 1985 shuttle flight. 1985: On August 19, 1985, four months prior to the Challenger disaster, the NASA management was briefed on the booster problems
  2. O-Ring Failure. To briefly summarize the issue, what happened was that the aft joint on one of the Challenger's rocket boosters failed during launch, which led to the escape of hot gases to the side, towards the main fuel tank. That tank was quickly ruptured, and started to disintegrate
  3. Actual presentation of the O-ring damage data before the Challenger launch . This presentation of the data shows that on some STS flights there had been damage to the primary and secondary O-rings. Note this that this alone should have given pause fo
  4. How did the O-ring fail on the challenger? The cause of the disaster was traced to an O-ring, a circular gasket that sealed the right rocket booster. This had failed due to the low temperature (31°F / -0.5°C) at launch time - a risk that several engineers noted, but that NASA management dismissed
  5. Worries of potential O-ring failure in the near-freezing weather conditions predicted for the following morning, as expressed by Roger Boisjoly and others, were downplayed, and Thiokol collectively voted that Challenger was fit to fly, unwittingly signing the death warrants of the seven-member 51L crew: Commander Dick Scobee, Pilot Mike Smith.
  6. 1986 Challenger disaster and O-rings Description. On January 28, 1986, a routine launch was anticipated for the Challenger space shuttle. Seventy-three seconds into the flight, disaster happened: the shuttle broke apart, killing all seven crew members on board

O-ring temperature for each test firing or actual launch of the shuttle rocket engine. Erosion. Number of erosion incidents . Blowby. Number of blowby incidents. Total. Total number of incidents. Source. Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Vol. 1, 1986: 129-131. References. Tufte, E. R. 1997. Visual Explanations チャレンジャー号爆発事故(チャレンジャーごうばくはつじこ)は、1986年 1月28日、アメリカ合衆国のスペースシャトル チャレンジャー号が打ち上げから73秒後に分解し、7名の乗組員が全員死亡した事故である 。 同オービタは北米東部標準時午前11時39分(16:39utc、1月29日1:39jst)にアメリカ. 9. O-ring resiliency is directly related to its temperature. a. A warm O-ring that has been compressed will return to its original shape much quicker than will a cold O-ring when compression is relieved. Thus, a warm O-ring will follow the opening of the tang-to-clevis gap. A cold O-ring may not. b A shuttle has 5 O-rings, and there were 24 launches, which gives us a total of 120 observations. By looking at the data, one launch experienced 3 O-ring failures, one experienced 2 O-ring failures, and all the others experienced 1 O-ring failure (the launch at 70ºF is two separate launches)

The engineers who worked on the Challenger O-rings knew they weren't qualified for cold weather. But management didn't want to hear it and OK'd the launch despite the engineer's opposition. As. Feynman discovered that on the space shuttle's solid fuel rocked boosters, an o-ring is used to prevent hot gas from escaping and damaging other parts. Concerns were raised by engineers that the o-ring may not properly expand with the rest of the hot booster parts, keeping its seal, when outside temperatures fall between 32 degrees Fahrenheit O-ring resiliency is directly related to its temperature. a. A warm O-ring that has been compressed will return to its original shape much quicker than will a cold O-ring when compression is relieved. In view of the findings, the Commission concluded that the cause of the Challenger accident was the failure of the pressure seal in the aft. Aerospace O-Rings. In the case of the Challenger, rubber O-rings made of FKM, a high performance rubber, were used to form seals inside the fuel tank. Because it was so cold the night before and morning of the Challenger launching, the O-rings became rigid and failed to expand, forming a gap for the gas to leak through, instead of sealing the.

The Rogers Commission elaborated a report (Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident 1986) with all the findings. The commission determined that the disintegration began with the failure of an O-ring seal in the solid rocket booster due to the unusually cold temperature (\(-0.6\) Celsius degrees; \(30.92\) Fahrenheit degrees) during the launch SHARE. January 28, 2021 marks the 35th anniversary of the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger and her crew of seven astronauts. The disaster rattled the country and was later blamed on the failure of O-rings in one of the solid rocket motors. Weather played a major factor in the Challenger accident, but weather was a factor long before that.

Space Shuttle Challenger disaster - Wikipedi

Challenger: O-rings, Field Joints, and Heaters: The storied nature of the events leading up to the disintegration of the orbiter Challenger and the STS-51L stack on January 28, 1986 is one that. We were told that Challenger disintegrated because of a malfunctioning O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster. The O-ring failure caused a breach in the SRB joint it sealed, allowing pressurized burning gas from within the solid rocket motor to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB aft field joint attachment hardware and external fuel tank, leading to the structural. Occurence or not of an O-ring failure. temp. Temperature at the time of the launch. Details. In 1986, the space shuttle Challenger exploded during take off, killing the seven astronauts aboard. The explosion was the result of an O-ring failure, a splitting of a ring of rubber that seals the parts of the ship together The Challenger accident was caused by a design flaw in the spacecraft's O-rings, which are mechanical gaskets that are designed to be seated in a groove and then compressed in between two surfaces. Liftoff. That smoke is Challenger's O-rings vaporizing. The Shuttle would've exploded on the pad, but aluminum oxide residue from the solid rocket booster temporarily plugged the hole

The explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger. The mistake: An O-ring gasket failed in unexpectedly cold weather. Estimated cost: $5.5 billion. What happened: On January 28, 1986, NASA and the. At ebay.com you can purchase Pentair 350013 Lid O-Ring Replacement, Pool and Spa Pump, 1 Pack for only $2.99, which is 63% less than the cost in Walmart.com ($8.18). The lowest price of Pentair 350013 Challenger Cover O-Ring was obtained on August 23, 2021 10:06 pm O-ring problems emerged again several months later with flight 51-B, the seventh mission of the Challenger spacecraft. This time, engineers discovered not only that the primary O-ring eroded and never sealed, but that the secondary O-ring also eroded. The damage prompted Boisjoly to draft two memos • We suspected O-Ring problems since 1977 • We confirmed it in 1981 after first shuttle launches had 30% O-Ring damage • Of 24 flights, 7 have experienced O-Ring damage • Thi i b d th k fli ht l f 53This is way beyond the known flight envelope of 53° • The worst O-Ring damage was at 53° Conclusion : No Go - delay launch until 53

O-ring - Wikipedi

The segments would be connected with seals consisting of the O-rings, and ablative putty. The putty would act as a sealant keeping the pressure in, keeping the flames from escaping, and providing thermal isolation to the O-rings from the flames. The O-rings were to keep the putty from getting squeezed out by the extreme pressures of combustion Challenger pumps always used round seal plate o-ring which have always been tricky to keep in place when pump halves are joined back together, many years ago a quad-ring became available for these pumps that solved that problem as they stayed in the o-ring channel without having to put lube all over it in order to keep it in place for a split second to join the pump halves, it is almost. 5 a.m. -- Mulloy tells Lucas about Thiokol's O-ring concerns and shows the Marshall Center director a copy of the Kilminster telefax. Challenger thunders for the heavens Francisco Kjolseth | The Salt Lake Tribune Allan McDonald wrote Truth, Lies, and O-Rings about the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster that killed seven astronauts on Jan. 28, 1986. Thursday is the 30th anniversary of the Challenger explosion -- an event McDonald wishes he averted. The Ogden man was the director of Morton Thiokol's booster.

Their findings were worrying — the rubber O-ring seals stiffened in cold weather, allowing the hot, high-pressure gas inside the boosters to leak out — but NASA and their managers at Thiokol. Years after the disaster, it was learned Challenger was doomed by a failed rubber seal, called an O-ring, that lined the field joints of the boosters. They are designed to flex during launch. Post-Challenger the SRM field-joint metal parts, internal case insulation and seals were redesigned. A detailed comparison of the redesign can be seen in Fig 1. A weather protection system was also added. Pressure actuation to the O-ring upstream face was determined essential for proper sealing. A tang captive feature was also introduced to.

What specific type of rubber were the Space Shuttle SRB O

The Challenger O Ring Disaster. Jake: We'll keep going with this, is that I was reading through his- he has a report on the Challenger disaster. He was part of a commission that was trying to untangle what went wrong there. Famously, at one of the hearings, he pulls out a little rubber O ring that was part of the problem and puts it. Furthermore, until the Challenger disaster, it was not clear that cold temperatures, as compared to other factors, represented an overriding concern for the o-rings Our selection of 2006 dodge charger rt fuel rail o ring seal is the products that can be recommended to any customer. We collect only high rating 2006 dodge charger rt fuel rail o ring seal and choose different types, kinds, or styles of 2006 dodge charger rt fuel rail o ring seal for you in the list Challenger Shuttle O-Ring Data These data are from Table 1 of the article Risk Analysis of the Space Shuttle: Pre-Challenger Predication of Failure by Dalal, Fowlkes and Hoadley, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 84, No. 408 (Dec. 1989), pp. 945-957.The variables are as follows The Presidential Commission's inquiry concluded the cause of the Challenger accident was the failure of the pressure seal in the aft field joint of the Solid Rocket Motor. In fact, the aft field joint had two O‑ring seals, a primary seal and a secondary seal as a back-up, therefore both seals must have failed and the Pres. Comm's report should have read the failure of both pressure seals

Part 1: The Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion and the O-ring. On January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after liftoff, killing seven crewmembers and traumatizing a nation (See a video of the launch). Source: Space Shuttle Challenger in 1983, by US Department of Defences [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons It is inferior to o-rings in dynamic applications. Square rings can also be more difficult to install than O-rings. Challenger Disaster: The failure of an O-ring seal was determined to be the cause of the space shuttle Challenger disaster on January 28, 1986. A contributing factor was cold weather prior to the launch The failure of right Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) O-ring seal that ultimately destroyed Challenger changed not only the Space Shuttle program forever, but also highlighted the decision-making. pentair | o-ring, diffuser (square ring) | 355030 . optimus # 5002-13a pentair #355030 . this is the square diffuser gasket used on the medium head challenger pum

Challenger O-Ring Data - Logistic Regressio

I presume that my more robust you mean a material that would handle the high temperatures of the gasses in the rocket engine? Unfortunately in this application O-rings don't work that way. The sole purpose of these O-rings is to prevent gas leak.. Limited chemical resistance exists also against halogenated hydrocarbons ( O-Ring selection standard ISO 23936-1:2009 Page 10 ) Now,My Personal Favorite the O-Ring used above in NASA's Shuttle Motor FKM Vitton. FKM Vitton. This is an amazing O-ring material acceptable to many services but still there are few service where it is not compatibl About Challenger Since 1982, Singapore's only homegrown consumer electronics chain Challenger has grown to serve over half a million ValueClub members across 40 stores island-wide. Shop the latest IT gadgets, lifestyle products and services with peace of mind. Plus, earn up to 1.5% member rebates to maximise your big-ticket tech purchase

Challenger Disaster - WARNINGS IGNORED

The Space Shuttle Challenger Accident - Davinder Maha

The O-Ring Situation at Morton Thiokol • Morton Thiokol (MT): Builder of the SRB. • Knew about O-ring problems for over a year. • Roger Boisjoly: MT Employee, discovers O-ring malfunction. • Concluded that hot gases were seeping through during rocket's burn. • Deformation of O-rings in low temperatures Six months before the Challenger disaster, one Morton-Thiokol engineer wrote a memo urging that all shuttle flights cease until questions about O-ring performance could be resolved. Management. Truth, Lies and O-Rings is a sad story of the negligence that brought down the Challenger space shuttle. The book is very detailed, and was written by Allan McDonald, a man who worked for the company that manufactured the O-Ring that led to the disaster. He was the director of the space shuttle motor project


Tra ogni segmento è presente una giunzione detta field joint (letteralmente: giunto da campo), sigillata con due O-ring. L'incidente del Challenger avvenne a causa della rottura del field joint del SRB di destra, che permise ai gas sotto pressione, all'alta temperatura e alle fiamme di fuoriuscire dall'O-ring e toccare il serbatoio esterno. The Pool360 Site Engineers have been informed. Please try again, later. Please call branch for availability. Basic. Advanced. Description. Super-Pro, O-421-9 O-Ring for Challenger (R) Diffuser, Waterfall Pump, 355331. Product Specifications. Brand An O-ring in the solid rocket booster was the technical reason why the tragedy happens. Morton Thiokol was the company contracted for doing the solid rocket booster which contained the O-ring. The launched had been postponed two times before January 1986 It found that the Challenger accident was caused by a failure in the O-rings sealing a joint on the right solid rocket booster, which allowed pressurized hot gases and eventually flame to blow by the O-ring and make contact with the adjacent external tank, causing structural failure 1: 'UL' indicates that pump bears a specific UL mark signifying evaluation to U.S. Standards UL1081 for Permanently Connected Swimming Pool and Spa Pumps and to Canadian Standards CAN/CSA C22.2 No. 108-01 Liquid Pumps for Swimming Pools and Spas

NASA - Engineer Who Opposed Challenger Launch Offers

On January 28, 1986 the space shuttle Challenger exploded. Seven astronauts died because two large rubber O-rings leaked during takeo . These rings had lost their resiliency because of the low temperature at the time of the ight. The air temperature was about 0o Celsius, and the temperature of the O-rings about 6 degrees below that The next morning the Challenger broke apart 73 seconds after liftoff, the result of an O-ring failure that caused one of its booster rockets to spin out of control. All seven on board were killed The NASA investigational commission's report on the incident cited the cause of the disaster as a failure of an O-ring seal in the solid-fuel rocket on the Space Shuttle Challenger's right side. The faulty design of the seal coupled with the unusually cold weather of the launch date, let hot gases leak through the joint How many parts were on the Challenger Space Shuttle and what was the cost of the o-ring that malfunctioned? Request for Question Clarification by pafalafa-ga on 28 Sep 2005 07:51 PDT Hello Mike. I found some reliable information on the number of parts in the Space Shuttle. However, the cost of the O-ring is another matter

The Challenger Disaster – Richard FeynmanWhistleblowingfinal

ASBESTOS SCARE LED TO CHALLENGER DISASTER As Bennett documents, had asbestos remained as a component of the O rings, the tragedy well might have been averted. This is a hidden—and unreported. Challenger Accident . Instructor's Guide . Introduction To The Case . On January 28, 1986, seven astronauts were killed when the space shuttle they were piloting, the Challenger, exploded just over a minute into the flight. The failure of the solid rocket booster O-rings to seat properly allowed hot combustion gases to leak from the side of the. A Bayesian forecasting model is developed to quantify uncertainty about the postflight state of a field‐joint primary O‐ring (not damaged or damaged), given the O‐ring temperature at the time of launch of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986 In the case of the Challenger, the analytic process on the day before the accident was seriously deficient, in the sense that--in hindsight to be sure--the Challenger would not have been launched on that very cold day (which compromised the O-rings and caused the accident) if smarter engineering analysis and better decision-making had taken place

The Worst Part Of The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster

A Bayesian forecasting model is developed to quantify uncertainty about the postflight state of a field-joint primary O-ring (not damaged or damaged), given the O-ring temperature at the time of launch of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986 Seventy-three seconds into the mission, the Challenger exploded, killing the entire crew. It was the first tragedy of the space shuttle program, followed in 2002 by the loss of the shuttle Columbia. After a lengthy investigation, NASA concluded that the shuttle was destroyed when an O-ring on a solid rocket booster failed Challenger High Flow Diffuser O-Ring Part # O-395. Choosing a selection results in a full page refresh. Press the space key then arrow keys to make a selection

35 years ago NASA lost 7 astronauts when Challenger explodedDr

The Challenger Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) Field Joint initial design was deemed as a direct cause of the shuttles catastrophic failure during lift off. O-ring upstream face was determined. Problem 1: Challenger Thermal Distress For the 23 space shuttle flights before the Challenger mission disaster in 1986, Table 1 shows the temperature at the time of the flight and whether at least one primary O-ring suffered thermal distress. Use an appropriate method to model the effect of temperature on the probability of thermal distress The Challenger Disaster: The Importance of Data Visualization. On January 28, 1986, the Challenger launched into space. Over a minute later, the entire shuttle disintegrated, killing all crew members aboard. Organizational theory classes have cited this as an example of how ineffective organizational structure led to the Challenger tragedy The temperature at the time of the Challenger liftoff was 32 degrees F. Feynman's famous C-clamp experiment. Feynman now believed that he had the solution, but to test it, he dropped a piece of the O-ring material, squeezed with a C-clamp to simulate the actual conditions of the shuttle, into a glass of ice water. Ice, of course, is 32 degrees F A damaged O-ring found after the Challenger explosion. Image reproduced with permission of Great Images in NASA. This means that the probability of all the field joints and O-rings working together successfully is only .87. This is a fairly low rate of success, considering what was in jeopardy Challenger's STS-51L mission was the first shuttle liftoff scheduled for Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. After several technical and weather-related delays.